X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation of the Nitrogen Species in Photoactive Perfluorophenylazide-Modified Surfaces

TitleX-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation of the Nitrogen Species in Photoactive Perfluorophenylazide-Modified Surfaces
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsZorn G, Liu L-H, Árnadóttir L, Want H, Gamble LJ, Castner DG, Yan M
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C Nanomaterial Interfaces
Volume118
Issue1
Start Page376
Pagination376-383
KeywordsGraphene, PFPA, surface characterization, xps
Abstract

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the nitrogen species in perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) self-assembled monolayers. PFPA chemistry is a novel immobilization method for tailoring the surface properties of materials. It is a simple route for the efficient immobilization of graphene, proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers onto a variety of surfaces. Upon light irradiation, the azido group in PFPA is converted to a highly reactive singlet nitrene species that readily undergoes CH insertion and C=C addition reactions. Here, the challenge of characterizing the PFPA modified surfaces was addressed by detailed XPS experimental analyses. The three nitrogen peaks detected in the XPS N1s spectra were assigned to amine/amide (400.5 eV) and azide (402.1 and 405.6 eV) species. The observed 2:1 ratio of the areas from the 402.1 eV to 405.6 eV peaks suggests the assignment of the peak at 402.1 eV to the two outer nitrogen atoms in the azido group and assignment of the peak at 405.6 eV to the central nitrogen atom in the azido group. The azide decomposition as the function of x-ray exposure was also determined. Finally, XPS analyses were conducted on patterned graphene to investigate the covalent bond formation between the PFPA and graphene. This study provides strong evidence for the formation of covalent bonds during the PFPA photocoupling process.