The effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration

TitleThe effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsVaquette C, Viateau V, Guérard S, Anagnostou F, Manassero M, Castner DG, Migonney V
JournalBiomaterials
Volume34
Pagination7048-7063
Date Published2013/09//
ISBN Number1878-5905
KeywordsAnimals, anterior cruciate ligament, Biocompatible Materials, Bone and Bones, Cells, Cultured, Female, Humans, Osteoblasts, Polyethylene Terephthalates, Polystyrenes, Prostheses and Implants, Sheep
Abstract

This study investigates the impact of polystyrene sodium sulfonate (PolyNaSS) grafting onto the osseo-integration of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament (Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System, LARS™) used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). The performance of grafted and non-grafted ligaments was assessed in vitro by culturing human osteoblasts under osteogenic induction and this demonstrated that the surface modification was capable of up-regulating the secretion of ALP and induced higher level of mineralisation as measured 6 weeks post-seeding by Micro-Computed Tomography. Grafted and non-grafted LARS™ were subsequently implanted in an ovine model for ACL reconstruction and the ligament-to-bone interface was evaluated by histology and biomechanical testings 3 and 12 months post-implantation. The grafted ligaments exhibited more frequent direct ligament-to-bone contact and bone formation in the core of the ligament at the later time point than the non-grafted specimens, the grafting also significantly reduced the fibrous encapsulation of the ligament 12 months post-implantation. However, this improved osseo-integration was not translated into a significant increase in the biomechanical pull-out loads. These results provide evidences that PolyNaSS grafting improved the osseo-integration of the artificial ligament within the bone tunnels. This might positively influence the outcome of the surgical reconstructions, as higher ligament stability is believed to limit micro-movement and therefore permits earlier and enhanced healing.

DOI10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.05.058